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Multiple, blended foregrounds over ethereal "skies" give this abstract landscape series an extraterrestrial appearance.

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In this series I blend multiple, erratic horizons with mountainous forms and stalactite-like smearings to create a colorful, abstract landscape.


This highly stochastic algorithm generates a wide range of abstract landscapes from representational seascapes to brilliant, atmospheric "lightscapes".

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Emotive western vistas are generated with various algorithms that become the foundation for my random cityscapes.

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Abstract landscape built from a simple horizon; Here a dark gradient implies the horizon over colorful "land" and "sky" regions that burst out of random background shapes.

Algorithmic abstract landscape


My home city... City of history and water and decay and renewal... ...of struggle, of life. Here I gather elements from all my abstractions to create an emotive view of Cleveland - Cuyahoga River Flats East Bank, Playhouse Square, and The Rock & Roll Hall of Fame + Great Lakes Science Center.


The emblem of one nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all. And purple mountain majesties.


Repeatedly drawn geometric shapes in carefully arranged yet still random order are layered and blended with various methods to create brilliant color and contrast.


The order of deco is nearly obliterated by stretching, smearing and shifting the image to create a distressed, illusory texture. Alternately, this series includes concentric circles and rays to lend a pop art feel.

This composition began as much whimsical tinkering with quilt squares, two-point perspective lines, and crosses. I wrote the randomized algorithms for all three separately and then merged them with mathematical color blending. The result was striking, and I began to see something familiar evolving: a compass rose, or as I prefer, "rose of the winds". The rose of the winds is commonly used on compasses, maps, and nautical charts to display the orientation of the winds (4, 8, 12, 16...) and is often quite decorative.


Industrial whimsy

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Tall, slender architectural forms are mirrored in a reflective foreground to suggest a futuristic city with sketchily rendered details.

Digitally manipulated pencil sketches combine elements from the initial design to the mathematical calculations that build the algorithms.

This algorithm began with a geometric sketch of a largemouth bass. I rounded some of the lines to create a more life-like representation, but kept the rigid geometry in the scales, fins, and facial structure.